NOTE: Recent changes, I think during Emacs 24.3, have swapped effects of
RET typically does
If you want automatic indentation, try to use
C-j instead of
RET for a while.
C-j usually runs
newline-and-indent. If you really like it, you might want to bind it to
RET. Add something along the following lines to your
(add-hook 'lisp-mode-hook '(lambda () (local-set-key (kbd "RET") 'newline-and-indent)))
lisp-mode-hook with the appropriate hook. Note that for any mode derived from
c-mode, the hook
c-mode-common-hook will do the trick.
If you feel squeamish about using anonymous functions in your hooks, the following will work just as well:
(defun set-newline-and-indent () (local-set-key (kbd "RET") 'newline-and-indent)) (add-hook 'lisp-mode-hook 'set-newline-and-indent)
On the other hand, this thing is a little bit cleaner and works with most modes:
(define-key global-map (kbd "RET") 'newline-and-indent)
For some programming languages, e.g., Fortran, using
reindent-then-newline-and-indent instead of
newline-and-indent may be clearer. Incidentally,
f90-mode (for Fortran 90, Fortran 95, etc.) is one in which redefining the key in the
global-map does not work. One must write something like:
(add-hook 'f90-mode-hook (lambda () (local-set-key (kbd "RET") 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)))
If you want to autoindent file when save or visit, try indent-file.el – coldnew
The indent-file.el saves every time you visit a file. In addition you get your buffer untabbified and all the trailing whitespace removed. I don’t like emacs saving files every time I visit them. I created a minor mode that autoindents on save or visit as well as autoindentation in general. In theory, emacs “pretends” that no such change occurred (its just between you and emacs). It is in AutoIndentMode – MatthewFidler
See also CleanAutoIndent – indentation without abandoned trailing white spaces
electric-indent-mode will indent the current line and new ones when you type certain “electric” characters or actions; pressing Enter, for example, will re-indent the current line if necessary, add a new one and indent it; adding a closing bracket (”}”) will automatically match the indentation of the opening pair (reducing identation if required), etc.
You can call
(electric-indent-mode 1) in your .emacs or customize-variable it to activate it permanently.
Seem that electric-indent-mode doesn’t work properly with python-mode. You can use this snippet:
;;; Indentation for python ;; Ignoring electric indentation (defun electric-indent-ignore-python (char) "Ignore electric indentation for python-mode" (if (equal major-mode 'python-mode) `no-indent' nil)) (add-hook 'electric-indent-functions 'electric-indent-ignore-python) ;; Enter key executes newline-and-indent (defun set-newline-and-indent () "Map the return key with `newline-and-indent'" (local-set-key (kbd "RET") 'newline-and-indent)) (add-hook 'python-mode-hook 'set-newline-and-indent)
The following code (inspired by this post) accomplishes this beautifully:
(dolist (command '(yank yank-pop)) (eval `(defadvice ,command (after indent-region activate) (and (not current-prefix-arg) (member major-mode '(emacs-lisp-mode lisp-mode clojure-mode scheme-mode haskell-mode ruby-mode rspec-mode python-mode c-mode c++-mode objc-mode latex-mode plain-tex-mode)) (let ((mark-even-if-inactive transient-mark-mode)) (indent-region (region-beginning) (region-end) nil))))))
Just put the above in your
.emacs file and enjoy automatic indentation of yanked text in the listed programming modes.
Fall back to default, non-indented yanking by preceding the yanking commands with C-u. (To add your own modes, check the value of the
major-mode variable (
C-h v or
M-x describe-variable) and add it to the list.)
Alternatively, you may define a separate
yank-and-indent command as such:
(defun yank-and-indent () "Yank and then indent the newly formed region according to mode." (interactive) (yank) (call-interactively 'indent-region))
and then bind it as you see fit, e.g.,
(global-set-key "\C-y" 'yank-and-indent). However, note that the
defadvice method is recommended if you use modes such as CuaMode.
defadvice for e.g.
html-mode is the following:
(defadvice yank (around html-yank-indent) "Indents after yanking." (let ((point-before (point))) ad-do-it (when (eq major-mode 'html-mode) ;; check what mode we're in (indent-region point-before (point))))) (ad-activate 'yank)
Normally, killing the newline between indented lines doesn’t remove any extra spaces caused by indentation. That is, placing the cursor (symbolized by
C-k (bound to
kill-line) results in
when it might be more desirable to have
which is what would have happened if the lines were not indented.
The following command,
kill-and-join-forward, accomplishes this:
(defun kill-and-join-forward (&optional arg) (interactive "P") (if (and (eolp) (not (bolp))) (progn (forward-char 1) (just-one-space 0) (backward-char 1) (kill-line arg)) (kill-line arg)))
It may be inserted into
.emacs and bound to
(global-set-key "\C-k" 'kill-and-join-forward)). In conjunction with the code above for automatic indentation of yanked text, this reduces the need to press
<tab> in order to re-indent misaligned lines.
defadvice may be used to alter the
kill-line command itself:
(defadvice kill-line (before check-position activate) (if (and (eolp) (not (bolp))) (progn (forward-char 1) (just-one-space 0) (backward-char 1))))
This affects all modes. Checking the value of the
major-mode variable allows for filtering:
(defadvice kill-line (before check-position activate) (if (member major-mode '(emacs-lisp-mode scheme-mode lisp-mode c-mode c++-mode objc-mode latex-mode plain-tex-mode)) (if (and (eolp) (not (bolp))) (progn (forward-char 1) (just-one-space 0) (backward-char 1)))))
(delete-indentation t) & Viper’s
vi-mode do exactly that, except that
delete-indentation) does the same thing, except that point can be anywhere on the second line.
Here’s the doc of
Join this line to previous and fix up whitespace at join. If there is a fill prefix, delete it from the beginning of this line. With argument, join this line to following line.
Cheers! – SebastienRoccaSerra
Yes, but you can only use
delete-indentation to join lines (and the original
kill-line command only to kill them). The above tip is admittedly a little inspired by TextMate, which tends to use the same keys for multiple things (depending on context). The
kill-and-join-forward command is essentially an indentation-ignoring version of
kill-line: it either joins lines (by killing the newline character plus any spaces) or kills them. I find that my editing is speeded up by the use of such “general-purpose” commands. (Another example is your brilliant smart-tab command.)
kill-and-join-forward command a little – it work almost as the original and uses standard
(defun kill-and-join-forward (&optional arg) "If at end of line, join with following; otherwise kill line. Deletes whitespace at join." (interactive "P") (if (and (eolp) (not (bolp))) (delete-indentation t) (kill-line arg)))
That’s indeed more elegant ☺ (I’ve edited the docstring a little so that the first line stands on its own when calling
M-x apropos.) How does it differ from the original behavior?
I did this to it:
(defun kill-and-join-forward (&optional arg) "If at end of line, join with following; otherwise kill line. Deletes whitespace at join." (interactive "P") (if (and (eolp) (not (bolp))) (progn (delete-indentation t) (if (looking-at " $") (delete-char 1))) (kill-line arg)))
so that when you’re killing a whole bunch of lines you don’t have to switch between C-k and C-d. I’m kind of lousy with elisp, though, and it seems really hacky compared to some of the other ways of doing things on this page. Is there something better I should have done instead of that progn?
If you don’t have a non-
‘fill-prefix’, then just
‘C-k M-SPC’. – DrewAdams
That leaves one space between the lines, which may or may not be what you want.