This is a page about performing actions “in the background” without resorting to operating system level threads. See: NoThreading


Emacs is the start of a great Operating System, but sometimes blocks the entire interface instead of just the buffer with pending IO.

Concurrency allows individual buffers to be “locked”, hopefully with a progress-bar, when keyboard input could cause data corruption.

Use Cases:

Pressing “!” (‘dired-do-shell-command’) in ‘dired’: Researching… maybe bg-shell-command.el?

Pressing “g” (‘revert-buffer’) in a ‘dired’ buffer.

Pressing “% g” (‘dired-mark-files-containing-regexp’) in a ‘dired’ buffer.

All IMAP operation in Gnus (see GnusSpeed)

Already Concurrent

Font Lock: ‘jit-lock-stealth-fontify’ solves this (using IdleTimers).

Shell: EmacsShell must be doing this right? (It runs external processes asynchronously)

Introspection: EmacsDebugger seems like it must do this, but maybe I’m thinking about it wrong. (It doesn’t really do much processing, just goes into a RecursiveEdit)

Practical Approaches to Concurrency in use today


CoRoutines, jit-lock-stealth*, ECB, Lisp:later-do.el, Lisp:coroutine.el, Lisp:tagbody.el, AsyncEval

Re: ange-ftp.el patch to always asynchronously copy files
Andy Norman (
Fri, 09 Sep 1994 11:52:05 +0100

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Rick writes:

>>>>>> "Andy" == Andy Norman <> writes:
Andy> I'd advise against this change as it would confuse dired when
Andy> multiple tagged files are being copied.  (Note that efs
Andy> 1.12-beta / dired 7.5 have asynchronous file copying support).

> Hmmm. I've been using ange-ftp on 19.25 for a long while now and the fact
> that I did have to wait around was major factor of cheese for me. Then I
> switched to Lucid 19.10 and the ange-ftp I'm using there is (I guess)
> asynchronously copying files, because I can edit, read mail etc while the
> file is being transferred.

> So how come this is implemented in Lucid but not GNU Emacs?

A bit of history may help new listeners here...

ange-ftp was developed under GNU Emacs 18.  It worked mainly by overloading
functions.  Around the same time, an extended version of dired (=tree dired)
was developed by Sebastian Kremer and both Sebastian and I worked together to
make sure that both packages were compatible as far as possible.

ange-ftp 4.20 (the last v18 release) came with several functions which
re-defined what tree dired did when copying files.  It allowed both single
file copy (=copy-file) and dired's "c" command to work asynchronously even on
multiple files.

RMS then took tree dired and ange-ftp 4.20 and incorporated them into FSF GNU
Emacs 19.<somelowdigit>.  He renamed several ange-ftp variables, removed a lot
of the non-UNIX support in ange-ftp and stripped out a lot of the dired
overloading, including the multiple file async copying.

In addition, RMS wasn't too keen on the way that ange-ftp overwrote functions,
so he added a different mechanism for ange-ftp and other packages that might
play with filenames could hook into GNU Emacs.  This mechanism has been
refined a few times since its original introduction.

The fallout from all these changes is that RMS's version of ange-ftp/dired
doesn't currently do any copying asynchronously.

Now, Lucid Emacs (or XEmacs as it is probably called now) took the v18
ange-ftp 4.20 and made a few improvements to it.  I believe that they took
"tree" dired 6.0, but I'm not sure.  The offshoot is that ange-ftp works under
XEmacs in the same way as it worked under v18, namely that async copying is
supported and works fine.

I hope this ramble helps a bit...
					-- ange -- <><


Is it the tail call capability that allows CoRoutines in Scheme to CommonLisp to be used as a type of Thread? Is that what a continuation is?
No. Tail Call Optimization allows Scheme to express iterative loops (that is, iterative algorithms) as recursive programs. CoRoutines are a type of cooperative threading, so not the type you are looking for (which would be preemptive threading).
I’ve studied this in the past but was somehow never able to get it understood.
In other words, would it ever be possible to create a ConcurrentEmacs with the current EmacsLisp engine?
Difficult. Dynamic scoping has a really hard time with threads, so that would be the biggest problem. Also, threads are not The One Solution…
On the other hand, it seems FontLock and parts of EmacsShell use a kind of cooperative threading with timers… Am I looking at this the right way?
Sort-of. They do stuff when the user is idle. Look at my LaterDo for a generalized example of that.
I’ve been looking-for/trying-to-build something like LaterDo for quite some time. Thanks! – PatrickAnderson
The main question (in my mind at least) is: how can we migrate Emacs toward a level of performance needed for fully serious replacement of other “OperatingSystems” - so that we can begin considering the editing of heavy content such as audio, video, game physics etc. including JIT compilation etc.
Easy. Replace emacs with a Lisp machine. (Emacs is closer to a WikiPedia:Lisp machine than some would think, but still miles away…) --forcer
For now an interface that doesn’t lock up when you revert a buffer would be sufficient. – PatrickAnderson

On the WhyDoesElispSuck page, someone wrote: Allegedly optional lexical scoping is coming after Emacs 23 is released. (according to emacs-devel) Once it’s in place, adding coroutines will be feasible, which addresses the “single-threading sucks” argument that’s surprisingly absent on this page. Should also make closures possible.

StefanMonnier at wrote on 2008-05-02:

>> The issue is when we start putting global variables into the mix:
> ...
>> Anyway, hopefully someone has some ideas on what to do here.  I admit I
>> haven't looked at how sxemacs handles this yet. Maybe we can just deal
>> with locks?  At least in that case my IMAP mail could download while I
>> am typing in another buffer :)

> If the multi-threading were cooperative (as rms suggested), then such
> problems would obviously be a bit easier to manage -- you can basically
> just say "no context switches except at well defined points", and define
> these "points" to be (1) user interaction/recursive edits [where the
> user can do something to "screw up the state" even today], or (2)
> explicit calls to yield.

W.r.t to concurrency, I think we need to think about how to introduce it
into Emacs, indeed.  The reason why I think so is because in order to
evolve Emacs needs to eat up more CPU.  You may think Emacs is not CPU
bound, but it's only the case because it only uses what is available.
Try to run Emacs-22 on a 486 to get an idea of what I mean.
Single-thread CPU power is very unlikely to increase significantly in
the future, so if we want to get access to the additional CPU power
we'll need concurrency.

Now we already have concurrency, in the form of start-process.
`flyparse' and `flymake' do just that.  And maybe that's good enough.
But I expect that closer integration of additional threads will be
needed/useful at some point.

Other than separate processes, we can add threads without affecting
Elisp, by using separate threads for the GUI and for the redisplay.
Even the redisplay could be parallel by using separate threads per

As for adding concurrency to Elisp, the core difficulty will be the heap
of code that assumes concurrency doesn't exist, as well as the
interaction between buffer-local and let-bound variables.

But indeed, I think a good first step is to add coroutines.  This should
not be terribly difficult to do (especially since it's OK for it to
break code as long as it's only broken when you use `yield').
Patches welcome.

> However I think there are potentially additional problems with dynamic
> scope:  remember, elisp uses shallow scoping, where binding a variable
> is basically "save old value, and set global".  For normal variables,
> this could be replaced by deep-binding, which is more multi-threading
> friendly (my "lexbind" branch already uses deep-binding in the
> interpreter), but afaik, the use of shallow-binding in elisp is kind of
> intertwined with the implementation of buffer-local variables and the
> like, and I'm not so sure how easy it would be to handle such things
> with a new deep-binding implementation.

The way I see it, multithreading within a buffer is a problem we can
ignore for the next 20 years.  So let-binding a buffer-local var can
be handled via shallow-binding (whereas let-binding of global variables
needs to use deep binding).  So the only difficulty is to deal with
variables which are not make-variable-buffer-local but only
make-local-variable where we need to make sure we can always
unequivocally know whether to use deep or shallow binding.


Theoretical Approaches

threads in c.
There is a caveat in CoRoutines
‘yield’ is only valid at top-level in the coroutine, or inside a specially tweaked macro.
does that mean it can’t be used to implement concurrency?
researching… google:coroutines,

here’s part of a discussion between PatrickAnderson and EliBarzilay about using engines:

  > On Jun 11, Patrick Anderson wrote:
    I would like to understand the reason Elisp can't be used to
    implement something like the 'engines' described in

  I vaguely remember that engines thing -- but the general principle is
  pretty well-known: with continuations you can implement co-routines
  and then continue to a non-preemptive (cooperative? -- the one where
  threads voluntarily yield) pretty easily, and finally you slap some
  timer interrupt mechanism and you have normal threads. 
    my guess is that first class continuations are not possible in a
    dynamically scoped language such as elisp, but i really don't
    understand such things well enough to be sure.
  I don't think that there is any issue with dynamic scoping.  The
  problem is that you need the system to provide you with continuations,
  like what you get in Scheme.  Otherwise you can sort of mimic this by
  passing explicit contiuations around but that is not too convenient.
  The thing is that adding continuations is not that hard -- the
  standard implementation just uses C's setjmp and longjmp, but it is
  just as well easy to add threading.

 implementing 'explicit' continuations in elisp is now on my todo list.
 Maybe that's what CoRoutines already does.  i have alot of reading to do.
  The problem with Emacs is that there is a lot of code that relies on
  being sequential etc.  The most obvious thing is the heavy usage of
  dynamic scoping -- in the presence of threads, you'll need each thread
  to have its own value but that leads to a need for something better
  than just dynamic scoping -- like Scheme's lexical scoping combined
  with some solid mechanism for dynamic values (MzScheme has parameters,
  but almost any Scheme implementation has something similar).  Even
  sawfish (or actually librep) has an implementation of "fluid" values,
  but that doesn't have threads in any case (and some other questionable
  design choices).
  Generally I think that Emacs is a great tool that can use some heavy
  rework -- the two heaviest things are threads and a better language
  (there's the Scheme camp and the Common Lisp camp).  But the bottom
  line so far is that this will require so much work that it is just not
  doable so we're stuck for a long time until some solution that can
  reuse all existing code will be found.  And there is work on that

So what does everyone most want to do concurrently? Download mail in the background, render webpages while editing, font-lock with 8 CPUs at once, ..? Important question! – LukeGorrie

GNUS! I really want to love Gnus, but it is beyond pathetic that all of Emacs blocks when Gnus is blocked on IO. My internet connection is quite slow/spotty, so I often find myself pressing spacebar in Gnus and then finding all of Emacs locks up for several minutes while it tries to open the next message. Then I find myself reaching for a different editor just so I can edit some files while I wait for Gnus! What is that? This is not Emacs’ fault. Compare ERC, it uses subprocesses to be able to receive messages asynchronously without blocking all of Emacs. The functionality is there. Gnus just needs to use it. sigh

Most of the times when I would need this is when doing work in dired that takes long time; it could be listings on a file server at another office, it can be “% g” searches I want to do, etc. Dired is a very handy tool for many variants of file operations, but sometimes I have to plan the work so that I don’t need Emacs during the time dired works. – MaDa

See also DownWithEmacsLisp, NoThreading.