If you want to define a Face that looks different depending on display capabilities, you cannot use ‘customize-face’. You must write EmacsLisp code.

The doc string for ‘defface’ explains your options. You can have different definitions depending on display type (x or tty), class (color, grayscale, or mono), and background (light or dark).

Here is a code example from font-lock.el:

 (defface font-lock-comment-face
   '((((class grayscale) (background light))
      (:foreground "DimGray" :bold t :italic t))
     (((class grayscale) (background dark))
      (:foreground "LightGray" :bold t :italic t))
     (((class color) (background light)) (:foreground "Firebrick"))
     (((class color) (background dark)) (:foreground "OrangeRed"))
     (t (:bold t :italic t)))
   "Font Lock mode face used to highlight comments."
   :group 'font-lock-highlighting-faces)