Some Lisp dialects, such as Scheme and EuLisp, are Lisp1’s, which means symbols have a single binding that you can establish with `‘let’`

. In such a Lisp, the following code locally binds the `‘add-one’`

function:

(let ((add-one (lambda (x) (+ 1 x)))) (add-one 1)) => 2

Many Lisp dialects are Lisp2’s, including MacLisp (Elisp’s ancestor), CommonLisp, ISLISP, and EmacsLisp itself. In these dialects, variables have one binding for values, and another for functions. The above code does not work as intended in a Lisp2.

To bind the function cell of a variable, `‘flet’`

works analagously to how `‘let’`

works for the value cell. Note that `‘flet’`

comes from the `‘cl’`

package, which is not active by default.

(require 'cl) (flet ((add-one (x) (+ 1 x))) (let ((a 1)) (add-one a))) => 2

Note that the body of a function defined using `‘flet’`

cannot be recursive: it gets the previous binding of the function. For recursive functions, you must use `‘labels’`

:

(require 'cl) (labels ((add-positive-integers (a b) (cond ((= a 0) b) (t (add-positive-integers (- a 1) (+ b 1)))))) (add-positive-integers 6 4)) => 10

Actually, if you are really sneaky, you **can** do recursion with flet as well. The following would look nicer in a Lisp1 dialect, since then the function cell access would not need `‘function’`

and the function use could omit `‘funcall’`

.

(require 'cl) (flet ((recurse (f a b) (cond ((= a 0) b) (t (funcall f f (- a 1) (+ b 1))))) (add-positive-integers (a b) (recurse (function recurse) a b))) (add-positive-integers 6 4)) => 10

Contributors: ThomasBurdick, RyanYeske, DavidKastrup

If you don’t want your users to fall back on such evil hackery, write libraries the other way around: If the function in question should be variable, use this idiom instead:

Declare a variable which holds the functions to use:

(defvar my-error-function 'error)

Later, funcall the variable instead of calling the function directly:

` (funcall my-error-function "This is an error message")`

Contributors: JohnWiegley, AlexSchroeder